The direction and strategies of Indonesian foreign policy are as follows:
1. To take on a more significant role and leadership in ASEAN and in the establishment of ASEAN Community 2015
Some efforts to take on a more significant role and leadership in ASEAN particularly in the establishment of ASEAN Community in 2015 are as follows:
(i) The development and implementation of the grand design of ASEAN community which will be used to introduce ASEAN Charter plan of action and to gain the commitment of all stakeholders in Indonesia to the implementation of the plan of action in economy, politics and security as well as social and culture. The support from domestic stakeholders will strengthen the role and leadership of Indonesia in ASEAN.
As the Chair of ASEAN in 2013, Indonesia should focus its attention to the support that is required to prepare for its performance.
(ii) The improvement of technical coordination and introduction of ASEAN blueprint. Indonesia's role and leadership in ASEAN is also determined by its consistent effort in performing what is stated in the ASEAN blueprint. To that end, technical coordination between ministries involved in the technical matters and the local government for the integration of the blueprint into the national law and for its implementation must be ensured. In addition, the introduction of ASEAN blueprint is necessary to affirm the commitment of domestic stakeholders, i.e., the central government, local government and the people. The commitment of and support from the central and local governments in the development will surely minimize the development between Indonesian and other ASEAN countries.
(iii) Indonesia's active participation in each and every ASEAN forum
The country's active participation is required to maintain and increase trust, demonstrate commitment and win the battle of ideas to direct ASEAN to the collectively desired path.
2. To take on a more significant role in preserving national security and creating world peace
Some efforts to take on a more significant role in preserving national security and creating world peace are as follows:
(i). Active participation to assert ideas and initiatives in UN forums to encourage reform in the UN Security Council. Indonesia's "free and active" foreign policy needs to be consistently asserted in international forums in addressing issues on world peace and security, including Middle East peace efforts.
(ii). Indonesia's participation at the meetings and implementation of international cooperation addresses the handling of weapons of mass destruction and conventional weapons, transnational crimes and terrorism. Indonesia should encourage and actively raise the awareness of the internationalization of transnational crimes in each international forum it participates in.
The country participates in various international fora and facilitation to the implementation of international cooperation which addresses and handles non-security issues such as food, energy, environment, health and global financial crisis. Particularly with regards to HIV/AIDS-related health issues, Indonesia's diplomacy should focus on how to obtain the access and benefit sharing (ABS) which enables Indonesia to gain fair distribution since it also has a virus strain, rather than only as a market for the pharmaceutical industry.
(iii). Diplomacy and facilitation of international cooperation is conducted to support the integrity and unity of Indonesia and to secure its natural resources.
(iv). Facilitation, coordination and cooperation with immigrants' countries of origin is conducted in order to address problems of migration resulting from internal conflicts and political instability which take place in the countries of origin of the immigrants.
(v). Public diplomacy is conducted through activities such as interfaith dialog to minimize inter-civilization prejudice.
3. To improve the performance of border diplomacy
Some efforts to improve the performance of border diplomacy are as follows:
(i) Border negotiation with the neighboring countries focusing on region border, continent shelf, and exclusive economic zone;
Expedite settlement of issues relating to negotiation over sea borders with Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Vietnam, and commencement of intensive negotiation with Palau and negotiation for settlement over land border with Timor Leste.
(ii) Facilitation in the making of ocean policy can be made the foundation for the policy in each negotiation about issues on sea border and sea region management. More solid national law becomes necessary as the foundation for bilateral negotiation over border issues.
4. To improve the quality of services for and protection of Indonesian citizens and Indonesian legal entities overseas
Some efforts to improve the quality of services for and protection of Indonesian citizens and Indonesian legal entities are as follows:
(i) Improvement of citizen services in the 24 overseas representatives
Strengthening of citizen services will improve the provision of facilitation in refuge provision, repatriation, deportation, and legal assistance and advocacy for troubled Indonesian citizens/Indonesian legal entities;
(ii) Facilitation of cooperation with destination countries of Indonesian citizens
A number of meetings with destination countries are held to strengten cooperation to address problems and ensure better protection of Indonesian citizens overseas.
(iii) Technical coordination with the relevant local government and local agency is performed to fix the first handler in the chain of the sending of workers overseas. Lack of coordination and synergized efforts in handling Indonesian citizens/Indonesian legal entities partly result from the performance of the relevant agency in Indonesian particularly in the process of recruitment and preparation of potential workers which is often inconsistent with Law Number 39 of 2004 and it eventually brings about problems of illegal/undocumented or non-procedural migrant workers.
Technical coordination with the local government and local agency will benefit in that it increases the efficacy of extension work on the importance of provision of services and protection for migrant workers overseas.
5. To create a more positive image of Indonesia through advancement of democracy and human rights, and protection of culture heritage.
Some efforts to create a more positive image through advancement of democracy and human rights, and protection of culture heritage are as follows:
(i) To play the role in encouraging democratization in Asia among others by holding Bali Democracy Forum (BDF) regularly as an effort to promote the positive image of Indonesia to the world and as a medium for exchange of experience about implementation of democracy in each of the participating countries;
(ii) To participate in international forums for advancement of human rights and preservation of environment, and to support the adoption of protection of genetic resources, traditional knowledge, dan folklore as part of international regime, ensuring the utilization of Indonesian cultural and traditional resources;
(iii) To facilitate and establish the cooperation with Timor Leste in the implementation of the plan of action of the Commission of Truth and Friendship. It has yet to be implemented since the plan of action which needs to be approved both countries is incomplete and since Timor Leste is not ready. For that purpose, encouragement, facilitation, and cooperation should be immediately realized.
6. To strengthen strategic partnerships in the regions of Asia Pacific and America-Europe through the following efforts:
(i) To facilitate trade promotion and investment to open, expand, and seek nontraditional market opportunities such as Russia, countries in the East and Central Europe, South Asia, Africa and South America.
Facilitation should be supported with some efforts to understand the Indonesia business players and those from countries in the East and Central Europe, South Asia, Africa and South America particularly on the potential and opportunities relating to nontraditional markets.
Facilitation in tourism promotion should also be supported and intensified through innovative and strategic ways. Cooperation with different parties needs to be established as an efficient and effective strategic effort.
(ii) To play a more active role in regional cooperation, particularly in Asia Pacific and Africa, America and Europe, specifically within Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), Southwest Pacific Dialogue (SwPD), New Asian African Strategic Partnership (NAASP), Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF), Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), Asia Middle-East Dialogue (AMED), Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), ASEM and FEALAC and sub regional cooperation such as Brunei Darussalam – Indonesia – Malaysia – Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA) and Indonesia – Malaysia – Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT). Through such participation, it is expected that Indonesia can make use of the available opportunities particularly in the form of real cooperation which benefits the national development.
(iii) To complete the Plan of Action for various agreements. Indonesia has entered into cooperation in various sectors with other countries which are close to Indonesia. However, those agreements cannot be performed due to the incomplete draft Plan. Therefore, it requires support and facilitation to in order to complete and implement the plan both in bilateral and regional cooperation for the interest of Indonesia so that the cooperation can benefit it.
7. To improve the quality of economic diplomacy in multilateral forums through: Indonesia's active participation in multilateral forums such as WTO, APEC, G-20, and G-33 to further promote the interest of Indonesian and other developing countries. Indonesia's initiatives and ideas need to be supported in each meeting.
8. To increase the South-South cooperation, through the development of the South-South cooperation. The South-South cooperation should be developed in order to mutually assist in creating independence, accelerating development and fostering solidarity among developing countries. For those countries, the South-South Cooperation mechanism can provide a tool to create a better leverage in their relation with developed countries. Developing countries should actively identify each of their own advantages to be synergized to create a collective power.
Indonesia has the intention to use technical assistance as a tool for diplomacy, particularly in its cooperation with developing countries in the Pacific and Africa. With regards to this technical assistance, Indonesia can share its advantages through the improvement of training capacity in agriculture sector, provision of assistance in the form of tool, and through the transfer of skills and knowledge.
In an effort to help facilitate the development of the South-South cooperation, Indonesia should strengthen its institutions so that they can coordinate the implementation of South-South cooperation in an integrated manner and to help identify potential advantage of Indonesia which can be made cooperation within the framework of the South-South cooperation.