Indonesia and the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

1/20/2016 Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Background

The United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (UNPKOs) is a flagship enterprise of the United Nations (UN)  to maintain international peace and security. According to the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UNDPKO) statistics as of 30 November 2015, there are approximately around 124,517 military, police, and civilians personnel currently serving in 16 UNPKOs. The United Nations is currently facing various challenges to address emerging and persistence gaps between the supply and demand of peacekeeping capabilities in various UN PKOs.


At its earlier stage, the goals of UN peacekeeping were limited to maintaining ceasefires and stabilizing situations on the ground, so that efforts could be made at the political level to resolve the conflict. However, with the end of the Cold War, traditional UNPKOs, whose tasks were essentially military in character, were transformed into multidimensional UNPKOs in terms of mandates and composition of staffs (employing a mix of military, police and civilian capabilities) to support the implementation of a comprehensive peace agreement and help lay the foundations for sustainable peace.

 

The nature of the conflicts faced by UN peacekeeping is also changing. While the UNPKOs previously dealt with conflicts between countries, nowadays the UNPKOs are deployed in the situations of internal conflicts and civil wars, faced with increasing asymmetrical threats, including the threats of armed groups, terrorism and radicalism as well as infectious diseases.


Indonesia's role in the UN peacekeeping mission


Indonesia's commitment to contribute to the establishment of world order based on freedom, lasting peace and social justice in accordance with the fourth paragraph of the Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1945 is carried out through its participation and active contribution in UN peacekeeping.


In the international context, Indonesia’s participation serves as an important and concrete indicator of its role in contributing to the maintenance of international peace and security. Whereas in the national context, such involvement is a means of increasing the professionalism of individuals and organizations directly involved in the deployment of Indonesian personnel to the UNPKOs.


From the economic point of view, Indonesia's participation in peacekeeping missions can also be used to encourage the development of national strategic industries in the field of defense. One of the products of Indonesia’s defense industries used in peacekeeping missions is armored military vehicles (ANOA) produced by PT. Pindad.


As of 30 November 2015, Indonesia has 2,840 active personels serving in 10 peacekeeping missions, namely UNIFIL (Lebanon), UNAMID (Darfur, Sudan), MINUSCA (Repubik Central Africa), MONUSCO (Democratic Republic of the Congo), MINUSMA (Mali), MINURSO (Sahara West), MINUSTAH (Haiti), UNMIL (Liberia), UNMISS (South Sudan), and UNISFA (Abyei, Sudan). The number places Indonesia as the 12th largest Troops/Police-Contributing Countries (T/PCC). Furthermore, with 1,296 personnel, Indonesia is also the largest contributing country in UNIFIL (Lebanon).


As part of efforts to increase the number and improve the qualities of Indonesian peacekeepers, the Indonesian Government has done the followings:


  1. Established a Coordinating Team for Peacekeeping Missions (Tim Koordinasi Misi Pemeliharaan Perdamaian/TKMPP) through Presidential Decree No. 85 in 2011.
  2. Outlined Vision 4,000 Peacekeepers aimed at placing Indonesia among the top ten T/PCCs through the deployment of 4,000 Peacekeepers in 2019. To that end, the Minister of Foreign Affairs as the Chairman of TKMPP has issued the Regulation of Foreign Ministry No. 5 of 2015 on the Roadmap Vision 4,000 Peacekeepers 2015-2019 as a strategic guideline to materialize the Vision 4,000 Peacekeepers;
  3. Established of The National Army Peacekeeping Training Center (Pusat Misi Pemeliharaan Perdamaian TNI/PMPP TNI). The Center is meant to be a training ground for Indonesian personnel as well as a hub for peacekeeping training centers in the region. In the future, the National Police will also establish a training center for police personnel that will be deployed to the UNPKOs;
  4. Issued the Presidential Regulation No. 86 of 2015 on the deployment of Peacekeeping Missions. This regulation serves as a legal basis for the deployment of Indonesian personnel to peacekeeping operations.


Coordinating Team for Peacekeeping Missions (Tim Koordinasi Misi Pemeliharaan Perdamaian/TKMPP)

Through Presidential Decree No. 85 of 2011, the President established a Coordinating Team for Peacekeeping Missions. The Team comprises the Coordinating Minister for Political, Legal and Security (Steering), the Minister of Foreign Affairs (Chairman), the Minister of Defence, the Minister Law and Human Rights, the Minister of Finance, the National Development Planning Minister, the Cabinet Secretary, the Army Commander, the Chief of the National Police and State Intelligence Agency. Acting as the Secretary to the Team is the Director General of Multilateral Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

TKMPP is tasked to formulate policies and coordinate necessary steps related to Indonesia's participation in peacekeeping missions. In carrying out such tasks, TKMPP has the following functions: a). coordinate the planning, preparation, execution, and termination of Indonesia's participation in peacekeeping missions; b). prepare a comprehensive study and recommendations on policy related to Indonesia's participation in peacekeeping missions; c). prepare and formulate positions and strategies in the negotiations on Indonesia’s participation in peacekeeping missions; d). monitor and evaluate Indonesia's participation in peacekeeping missions.

Increasing the Role of Civilian in Peacekeeping Missions

As the nature of UN peacekeeping becomes increasingly multidimensional and robust, Indonesia seeks to contribute its civilian capacity in UN peacekeeping and peacebuilding missions. To that end, Indonesia has initiated a resolution on civilian capacity in the aftermath of conflict at the UN General Assembly (March 2012) which was adopted by consensus. Furthermore, the TKMPP is currently developing a national mechanism to deploy Indonesian civilian capacity in post-conflict peacebuilding programs of the UN, including in the fields of economic revitalization and basic safety and security.